SEC. 2221




Section Summary


ESSA Update

``SEC. 2221. <<NOTE: 20 USC 6641.>> PURPOSES; DEFINITIONS.

    ``(a) Purposes.--The purposes of this subpart are--
            ``(1) to improve student academic achievement in reading and
        writing by providing Federal support to States to develop, 
        revise, or update comprehensive literacy instruction plans that, 
        when implemented, ensure high-quality instruction and effective
        strategies in reading and writing from early education through
        grade 12; and
            ``(2) for States to provide targeted subgrants to early
        childhood education programs and local educational agencies and
        their public or private partners to implement evidence-based
        programs that ensure high-quality comprehensive literacy
        instruction for students most in need.

    ``(b) Definitions.--In this subpart:
            ``(1) Comprehensive literacy instruction.--The term
        `comprehensive literacy instruction' means instruction that--
                    ``(A) includes developmentally appropriate, 
                contextually explicit, and systematic instruction, and
                frequent practice, in reading and writing across content
                    ``(B) includes age-appropriate, explicit, 
                systematic, and intentional instruction in phonological
                awareness, phonic decoding, vocabulary, language
                structure, reading fluency, and reading comprehension;
                    ``(C) includes age-appropriate, explicit instruction
                in writing, including opportunities for children to
                write with clear purposes, with critical reasoning
                appropriate to the topic and purpose, and with specific
                instruction and feedback from instructional staff;
                    ``(D) makes available and uses diverse, high-quality
                print materials that reflect the reading and development
                levels, and interests, of children;
                    ``(E) uses differentiated instructional approaches, 
                including individual and small group instruction and
                    ``(F) provides opportunities for children to use
                language with peers and adults in order to develop
                language skills, including developing vocabulary;
                    ``(G) includes frequent practice of reading and
                writing strategies;
                    ``(H) uses age-appropriate, valid, and reliable
                screening assessments, diagnostic assessments, formative
                assessment processes, and summative assessments to
                identify a child's learning needs, to inform
                instruction, and to monitor the child's progress and the
                effects of instruction;
                    ``(I) uses strategies to enhance children's
                motivation to read and write and children's engagement
                in self-directed learning;
                    ``(J) incorporates the principles of universal
                design for learning;
                    ``(K) depends on teachers' collaboration in
                planning, instruction, and assessing a child's progress
                and on continuous professional learning; and

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                    ``(L) links literacy instruction to the challenging
                State academic standards, including the ability to
                navigate, understand, and write about, complex print and
                digital subject matter.
            ``(2) Eligible entity.--The term `eligible entity' means an
        entity that consists of--
                    ``(A) one or more local educational agencies that
                serve a high percentage of high-need schools and--
                          ``(i) have the highest number or proportion of
                      children who are counted under section 1124(c), in
                      comparison to other local educational agencies in
                      the State;
                          ``(ii) are among the local educational
                      agencies in the State with the highest number or
                      percentages of children reading or writing below
                      grade level, based on the most currently available
                      State academic assessment data under section
                      1111(b)(2); or
                          ``(iii) serve a significant number or
                      percentage of schools that are implementing
                      comprehensive support and improvement activities
                      and targeted support and improvement activities
                      under section 1111(d);
                    ``(B) one or more early childhood education programs
                serving low-income or otherwise disadvantaged children, 
                which may include home-based literacy programs for
                preschool-aged children, that have a demonstrated record
                of providing comprehensive literacy instruction for the
                age group such program proposes to serve; or
                    ``(C) a local educational agency, described in
                subparagraph (A), or consortium of such local
                educational agencies, or an early childhood education
                program, which may include home-based literacy programs
                for preschool-aged children, acting in partnership with
                1 or more public or private nonprofit organizations or
                agencies (which may include early childhood education
                programs) that have a demonstrated record of
                effectiveness in--
                          ``(i) improving literacy achievement of
                      children, consistent with the purposes of
                      participation under this subpart, from birth
                      through grade 12; and
                          ``(ii) providing professional development in
                      comprehensive literacy instruction.
            ``(3) High-need school.--
                    ``(A) In general.--The term `high-need school' 
                          ``(i) an elementary school or middle school in
                      which not less than 50 percent of the enrolled
                      students are children from low-income families; or
                          ``(ii) a high school in which not less than 40
                      percent of the enrolled students are children from
                      low-income families, which may be calculated using
                      comparable data from the schools that feed into
                      the high school.
                    ``(B) Low-income family.--For purposes of
                subparagraph (A), the term `low-income family' means a
                          ``(i) in which the children are eligible for a
                      free or reduced-price lunch under the Richard B. 
                      Russell National School Lunch Act (42 U.S.C. 1751
                      et seq.);
                          ``(ii) receiving assistance under the program
                      of block grants to States for temporary assistance
                      for needy families established under part A of
                      title IV

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                      of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 601 et
                      seq.); or
                          ``(iii) in which the children are eligible to
                      receive medical assistance under the Medicaid
                      program under title XIX of the Social Security Act
                      (42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.).